Rural Water Supply, Health and Sanitation (RWS-HS)


PDAO has expanded its capacity in implementing water and sanitation projects significantly over past five years through taking on a community development consultancy with the Ministry of Rural Development for the ADB funded on Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (RWSSP-II) from March 2011 to February 2015, in 6 provinces in Tonle Sap region (Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kampong Chhnang province). PDAO, as a lead NGO consultant was able to demonstrate that its portfolio of projects that involve technical support for a wide range rural development mechanisms, coupled with capacity development for local governments, and community mobilization was a good fit for implementing this proposed assignment.

The reason PDAO was able to demonstrate this was its long history of mobilizing behavior change in rural communities in Takeo and Kampot Provinces through forming SHG and CBO to mobilize the community and activate the important functions of local government such as Commune Councils, Village Development Committees (VDC), and Village Health Co-operator (VHC). PDAO has demonstrated this capacity over a number of different types of projects with the aim of improving health and livelihood outcomes. PDAO has implemented programs that have specifically implemented the development of water systems including irrigation and domestic uses, improved social development, improved food security, better maternal health and family planning, focused health and nutrition programs and income generation options and rural micro-credit.

In essence PDAO has strong experience in facilitating self-sufficient community led rural development. In 2010 PDAO partnered with Action for Development to develop a framework for how to apply these strengths to the WASH sector, and as a result is currently applying them to the RWSSP-II for the period of March 2011 to February 2015.

There are two major components to PDAOs work on the RWSSP-II project.

  • Community mobilizing (Hybrid-CLTS) with the intention of enhancing the success of the Water and Sanitation sub-projects at the Commune Level to implement improved water supply and sanitation facilities in villages. The implementation of a CLTS-Hybrid strategy defined as Community Driven Development (CDD) to create demand for subsidized hardware through local suppliers. The lessons learnt from this method will provide unique insight into how to more effectively link more pure CLTS facilitation methods with associated sanitation marketing efforts in the districts targeted by the GSF sub-grant. Notwithstanding the limitations of community involvement in all aspects of the hybrid model, PDAO has been able to realize an effective process for community based monitoring of sanitation and hygiene improvements in this project.
  • Awareness Raising (Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion) with the aim of promoting behavior change in the target communities for improved health and hygiene. PDAO is responsible for Behavior Change Communication across 6 provinces surrounding Tonle Sap. We have the organizational experience in promoting the use of safe water (at the source, during transportation and at the point of use), ceasing open defecation practices and always using a toilet, and appropriate personal hygiene practices such as hand washing and clean bodies).

PDAO recently implemented two other significant relevant projects, Cambodia Rural Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement Project (CRSHIP) funding by GSF through Plan International Cambodia and Engaging Women Led Self Help Groups with local government through Disaster Risk Reduction Planning and Capacity Development (WSHG-DRR) funding by Oxfam. Under the WSHG-DRR project, WASH projects were delivered in a challenging environment building on the location of existing CRSHIP program implementation district, at Angkor Borie, Takeo province. One of the specific objectives of this project is “to provide capacity development at the village level by promoting self-reliance through providing training in climate resilient agricultural methods (LAMP), household level Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices and diversified livelihood options for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) to Women Led Self Help Groups (SHG) in 3 Districts in Takeo Province (Baty, Tram Kak and Angkor Borei)”. Below are the significant relevant activities that have been delivered:

  • 36 Self-help Groups’ members in 18 villages, three districts, are trained on household level response to disaster risk reduction, WASH in Challenging Environment, livelihood options, and design household intervention plan,
  • 54 households in 18 villages are selected for the model households, 3 in each village. Of these 20 households to be selected as model households on WASH in a Challenging Environment. Details of their designs are to be documented, learning and sharing event are to be held in order to celebrate the success of the project and to present the publication of the good practice and story of change after the project come to an end.
  • The training manuals are developed/revised based on documentation of the good practices and challenges which are experienced throughout the project.

PDAO is one of the current CRSHIP implementing partners in Takeo province. It has demonstrated experience and achievements in delivering CLTS, School-WASH, and BCC programs together with Plan’s team and partners over the last one year and half. PDAO is one of the partners that decided to implement the CRSHIP in the very challenging location (Angkor Borie district) which is subject to six months of flood and six months of dry/drought. This poses both physical geographic challenges and behavior challenges. However the very active project team, have achieved two   ODF areas of 79 villages and are working toward 4 more by the end of August 2015. The number of household latrines construction in the target villages shows we are getting closer to ODF. 25 villages reached the average of 40-50%, 10 villages reached the average of 50-60%, 2 villages reached 60-70%, and 4 others reached over 70% of out of the total 79 villages targeted. Given the geographical challenges these figures show real progress is being made. In addition, we note that, the field follow-up program being contributed by PDAO field staff of ongoing project funding Oxfam and EU in the same location will build on these successes.

Beyond this PDAO has been active in developing its own technical capacity in initiating and developing its own WASH projects. Through implementing a hybrid-CLTS and pure CLTS strategy, PDAO has developed strong experience in the technical challenges faced by a community in installing water infrastructure and safe toilets. Previously PDAO has developed and delivered a project in Kampot. PDAO installed a solar powered water-supply system for school, and battery recharging station for rural communities in Takien commune, through a grant from EEP and recently PDAO has developed and delivered a project in Takeo to install a solar powered water-supply system and public latrines for school and safe area from flood, three demonstration sites at Angkor Borie, Tram Kak, and Baty district, to be installed before ending of 2015 through a grant from Oxfam Novib.

PDAO is engaged in a partnership with Engineers without Borders (EWB) Australia to develop further capacity in the sector. Through this partnership PDAO is expanding its activity in the WASH sector by strengthening its current capacity; developing better approaches to sanitation for those living in challenging environments; and further developing its approach to delivering safe water to communities.

Health and Nutrition Resource Improvement Campaign: Our health program focused on health and nutrition education to households having children of age 5 and below. We conducted monthly awareness education on primary health care especially on kinds of food that provide energy and vitamins for growing up the body, treatment and prevention from common illness and surveillance of nutritional status of children of age under five and their mother. In addition, sanitation and hygiene, in that latrines construction is an example, are also included in this project. In sustainable way for primary awareness at the community level, village health cooperators (VHC) were identified and selected, and trained through varieties of courses related to primary health care and others commons challenges disease and infectious epidemic such as HIV/IADS, bird flu, etc. VHC playing role in awareness and promoting of health and nutrition improvement through the community as a whole and mainly focus of mother and children aged below five year-olds. Different mechanism has been practice for awareness and promotion such as: specific training, monthly food feast, monthly meeting, house-to-house follow-up and small group discussion etc.